Photo of a gateman hut at albert Dock, with the Museum of Liverpool in the background

Hartley Huts, Albert Dock

The Hartley huts are three squat buildings at the entrance to Canning Dock. They were built in 1844 for the ‘gatemen’, those charged with operating the gates to allow ships to enter and leave the docks, some of which would be on their way to the graving docks nearby.

The working life of a gateman was not glamorous, with the gates having to be operated whenever the tide was right – even if this was in the middle of the night. On the plus side, these substantial buildings were heated, and had gas lighting. They might even have been cosy! The position of these huts gave the team a panoramic view of boats approaching.

Standing on the quay of the dock

The architectural style used for the buildings was ‘cyclopean’, which was similar to that used in the construction of other parts of the dock quays. The most obvious place to look is in the wall of the very dock in which the huts stand. The technique uses large blocks interspersed with smaller ones, expertly cut so that they make an impressively smooth surface, each block keying tightly into the next. This is a key characteristic of Jesse Hartley’s architectural style.

Dock huts after their heyday

Along with much of Liverpool’s dock estate, the huts became surplus to requirements. They were empty for many years, though they were adopted as part of Liverpool Museum’s security team. In recent years they are again empty, but Liz Stewart, Lead Curator of Archaeology & Historic Environment at the Museum of Liverpool and currently Head of Liverpool Museum (interim, though congrats to Liz!) wants to see them put to better use.

Liz told Radio Merseyside’s Paul Salt that she hoped they could be used, for instance, as refreshment stalls. Not only would this add new services to visitors, it would also go some way towards making these inegral parts of the dock estate more accessible to the general public. This will be just part of a wider project to improve the whole area around the Museum of Liverpool.

Source

This post takes its information from an interview with Liz Stewart, on the BBC Sounds website (accessed 4th april 2022): https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p0bn9zyv

Wright’s Moat, Halewood

Halewood was rather rural in character, before the landscape transformed it in the 20th century. Being on the edge of Liverpool contributed to the preservation of some interesting features. Two of these, once standing close to each other, were the Old Hutt and Wright’s Moat.

Wright’s Moat was a mysterious thing. It’s name comes from Thomas Wright who lived in New Hutt Farm in the 19th century (Royden, 1992). Mike Royden notes that it existed before this, though it’s name is not recorded.

The shape of Wright’s Moat

Old map showing Wright's Moat and Old Hutt
Wright’s Moat on the 1937-1961 Ordnance Survey 1:25000 map, showing the Old Hutt nearby (with permission of the National Library of Scotland)

Wright’s Moat consisted of a rounded square moat surrounding an ‘island’. The old maps that show it don’t give much clue as to why it was here, except that the 1937-61 OS map (1:25000) shows that a stream ran into or out of the south east corner. The stream clinked it to the moat around Old Hutt (which was a manor house). It could have been ornamental, or something like the Duck Decoy that is still standing today a few miles away in Hale (though see below).

The excavation of Wright’s Moat in 1960 found an empty site; only one trench was excavated, aligned NE/SW (Wrathmell). The archaeologists found coal and burnt stone, and concluded that the ‘platform’ of the Moat consisted of material dug from the ditch surrounding it.

They also concluded that the evidence pointed to ‘occupation’ (i.e. some human activity taking place here); the only material remains were pieces of medieval pottery. The pottery was very poorly preserved, and they therefore suggested that the medieval period represented the main period of activity.

Finally, the archaeologists put forward the idea that this could once have been a small farmstead. The inhabitants would have abandoned it when the Ireland family took over the land, moving into the Old Hutt.

Old map showing Wright's Moat and Lane Rough, a patch of woodland
Wright’s Moat and Lane Rough on the 25″ 1892-1914 Ordnance Survey (with permission of the National Library of Scotland)

Both Wright’s Moat and the nearby Old Hutt were destroyed when the Ford car factory (now Jaguar Land Rover) was built.

Further Reading

Royden, M., 1992, Old Hutt Moated Site (http://roydenhistory.co.uk/halewood/history/oldhutt/oldhutt.htm, accessed 6th Feb 2022)

Wrathmell, S., 1987, ‘Excavation and Survey at the Old Hutt, Halewood, in 1960’, Journal of the Merseyside Archaeological Society, vol 8, p1-46 – especially Appendix A on p44 (https://www.merseysidearchsoc.com/uploads/2/7/2/9/2729758/jmas_8_paper_1.pdf, accessed 6th Feb 2022)

Cobbles and cottages on Fisher Street

In early 2020 a Twitter user by the name of PhoenixME (@Phoenix1270) got in touch to ask about the ‘Forgotten Street’ (as they put it).

This led to a very interesting little journey to discover a road that is blocked off at one end by a gate, and at the other by buildings. But Fisher Street, to call it by its official name, once ran all the way from Grafton Street (the gated end) to Caryl Street (the building-blocked end).

It’s particular history has led to it preserving both the cobbled street (in impressive quality) and a couple of cottages. PhoenixME, who works at the site, has seen a fireplace with original hearth tiles, while another Twitter user, OldLiverpoolRailways (@ORailways) showed, through aerial photos, the two cottages themselves.

Old maps of the area also show that Fisher Street itself was once lined with court houses, notoriously small and unsanitary dwellings that thousands of Liverpudlians lived in during Victoria’s reign.

OS 1:500 town plan (left) and the modern aerial view of Fisher Street (click for larger version) eproduced with the permission of the National Library of Scotland

I can see the problem, because there’s little on the street that falls within the usual legal protection. There is no listing law for cobbled streets! And the cottages, while interesting survivors, won’t likely meet the architectural demands of the listing system.

It’s in a part of town which has long had industries around it like the Higson’s brewery building over the road, and the steel manufacturers which front onto Grafton Street on the corner with Fisher Street. As such it might not be there for much longer, and PhoenixME themselves worry that there’s little to protect it. Taller buildings are encroaching on all sides already.

Hopefully it will survive as a small business premises for some time to come!

You can see the layout of the street on my Old Streets of Liverpool map.

My thanks go to PhoenixME for highlighting this fascinating slice of of residences, and for ORailways for contributing too.

Photograph of the Liverpool Castle Reconstruction, Rivington, Lancashire

Liverpool Castle

Liverpool Castle is one of Liverpool’s greatest lost landmarks, alongside the Customs House and the Sailors’ Home.

This page collects aspects of the castle’s history as I find it, updated from time to time. As such, it’s not yet a complete history in its own right.

See also: Liverpool Castle, and Leverhulme’s reconstruction

Reconstruction in three dimensions

This is very interesting: a virtual reconstruction of Liverpool Castle using the detailed plans by Cox (see image further down). Ignore the missing…. river, and er… town… and you get an evocative suggestion of what it might have looked like.

A Report on Liverpool Castle

The following information comes from the modern transcription of the report. This is available in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol 59 (1907): https://www.hslc.org.uk/journal/vol-59-1907/attachment/59-7-gladstone/

‘Utter rwyne’

In June 1559 the castle’s condition was subject to an inspection. A report delivered in October of the same year. Francis Samwell, Ralph Assheton and John Bradill were the commissioners, acting on behalf of Queen Elizabeth I.

Early 20th century plan of Liverpool Castle
Plan of Liverpool Castle by E.W. Cox, from Wikipedia

Their report gives us a few interesting details about the town of ‘Litherpole’, such as that ‘honeste’ reports from the merchants claim the harbour can hold 300 sails’-worth ships at a time.

Their report did not start well, with reports that the towers and gatehouse were “in utter rwyne [ruin] and decay”. Nearly all the timber and lead had gone (presumably for use elsewhere). In fact, the lead had been missing for longer than living memory.

Rain fell freely through the slateless roof of the biggest tower, which was “a great pytie”. This caused damage to the remaining wood of the floors below. The report hoped that, with repairs, the Queen could once again stay in the castle when she came to inspect the wapentake court at West Derby. Though, considering the independent spirit of Liverpool’s burgeoning council, this might not have been incentive to carry out said repairs.

They also recommended the repair of the curtain wall. This would at least save the blushes of the town, “otherwyse it were a greate defacement”. On a more militant level, the castle was failing to supply its obvious defensive strength to the valuable harbour. This is the very reason it was placed on this promontory, overlooking the Pool.

Defence of the Mersey

However, they acknowledged that no ‘navye’ would be so foolish as to try invasion via the Mersey. The river is dangerous, and Wirral and Wales are nearby, ready to lend a hand in defence!

The commissioners also considered that the castle was good enough (perhaps following their repair suggestions) for the locals to hole up in until reinforcements arrived from the “verie populus” surrounding county.

The commissioners concluded by recommending to the Queen that she offer financial assistance for the repair of the castle. They suggested that £100 should do the trick, allowing for an 11 shilling upkeep each year from then on.

Further Reading

These references all relate to what we know of the original castle. (See also Lerpoole 1572 – Historic Liverpool)

Liverpool Castle, The Gatehouse Record, http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/English%20sites/1867.html, accessed 28th September 2019

Liverpool Castle, Pastscape (Historic England), https://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=67505&sort=4&search=all&criteria=liverpool%20castle&rational=q&recordsperpage=10, accessed 28th September 2019

Gladstone Jr, R., 1907, A Report on Liverpool Castle, 2nd October 1559, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol 59, https://www.hslc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/59-7-Gladstone.pdf, accessed 28th September 2019

Engraving of Woolt Hall, Liverpool, by JP Neale

Woolton Hall

When William Brettagh (of Holt) died, he left a cottage that would later become Woolton Hall. It was bought by the Broughton family, who began to extend it, and bring it up to date. By 1700 it was a three-storey building.

Traces of an older building still survive in the south west corner. Samuel Derrick visited in 1760 and mentioned in his diary an “iron coloured stone” element “in appearance about 200 years old”. This could be a survival of the original cottage, usually thought lost (Lally & Gnosspelius, 1975: 28)

The north block of Woolton Hall was designed by the same (but unknown) architect as the south west front of Croxteth Hall. It was commissioned by Woolton Hall’s owner, Richard Molyneux, who was heir to the Croxteth estate. Similarities can be seen in the decoration. Gadroons (decorative details usually only seen on ecclesiastical monuments) are one unusual feature shared by the two buildings.

Robert Adam was commissioned to remodel the Hall in 1772 by its new owner, Nicholas Ashton. Ashton owned a saltworks at Dungeon in Speke, and the house was given a view over the River Weaver and towards the saltworks.

It’s of interest that Ashon was building himself a house in the style of generations of aristocracy. And yet he had built his fortune in industry – a very unaristocratic activity. He was the turning point between old forms of wealth and new ones, one foot in the former and another in the latter.

Later industrialists would make their fortune from the landscapes natural resources of Woolton: James Gore owned quarries and a building company; John Rushton supplied timber to the building trade; James Rose was a Garston miller who also owned Woolton windmill, quarries, a steam mill, and the house at Beechwood.

Woolton Hall was later used as a ‘hydropathic’ hotel, a school, and latterly had plans to be converted into flats. A catastrophic fire in 2019 may have damaged much of the still in place historic features and objects.

Image: Image extracted from page 242 of volume 2 of “Views of the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. L.P”, by John Preston Neale. Original held and digitised by the British Library. (No known copyright, via https://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/11004130453/)

Further Reading

Urbex: Woolton Hall aka Wacky Tacky Manor aka Katie’s House, Liverpool – March & April 2014 (2 Visits) https://www.proj3ctm4yh3m.com/urbex/2014/05/19/urbex-wacky-tacky-manor-aka-katies-house-somewhere-united-kingdom-march-april-2014/ (accessed 7th June 2020)

Woolton Old School

Woolton Old School has a date stone showing 1610. There has been a suggestion that the last figure is the result of later restoration, but this can’t change the supposed date of building by much. A gift of £60 was given by Edward Norris in 1606 to pay for a master, so the institution was at least in the planning stage shortly before the date on the building.

The day-to-day expenses of the school were to be paid from the interest on this gift. Twenty years later it was worth £80, though the school Reeves had to be ordered by the Bishop of Chester to hand over the stock to the parish. The interest on the stock was supplemented by school fees.

The building is similar in age to the Old School at Walton. But the two buildings differ architecturally: Walton School has a double wall with ‘through’ stones to bind the two skins together, while Woolton School has a single layer of 11” thick stones. These stones are also very long, and would have taken at least two people to lift them into place. Walton’s stones could have been handled by an individual.

The gothic end-windows at Woolton are unusual for the date.

West Derby Castle

Edward the Confessor chose West Derby for his hunting lodge, and after the conquest West Derby was given to Roger of Poitou. The castle was probably built around 1100 by Roger, and was sited near St. Mary’s church in Meadow Lane.

The site may have been chosen because of its nearness to water (the Alt, and perhaps the stream which once flowed parallel with Meadow Lane). Coal was nearby (with outcrops at Croxteth) and there was plenty of woodland. The existing hunting lodge would also have been a factor. West Derby also stood on the crossroads of routes from Hale to Aughton and Liverpool to Warrington and Prescot.

Excavations at West Derby Castle

West Derby Castle was repaired in 1197 and 1202. Archaeological excavation in 1927 and 1956 revealed oak beams (probable cross-moat bridge supports), pottery, metal, leather, horn/bone. The later excavation also discovered the remains of a palisade.

In 2022 the Channel 4 programme The Great British Dig excavated a trial trench on the field in Meadow Lane that covers part of the site of the castle. They also excavated some smaller trenches in local residents’ back gardens. The archaeologists found pottery from the 12th to the 18th centuries (as well as more modern items like toy soldiers and a Second World War bullet case).

Eventually they excavated down to the moat itself, finding a sloping surface probably churned by later animals. They also found a loosely-built dry stone wall which may have been linked to post-castle farming. By measuring from one edge of the moat to the centre, and doubling the distance, they estimated it to have been around 9m (27 feet) wide. The excavation suggested it was no more than a metre (3 feet) or so deep. So while its defensive capability would have been less than imagined, the width would have been a fine reflective setting for a landmark castle like this.

The archaeologists also found the likely remains of the aforementioned stream, and the possible location for a water-powered mill that was known to have stood on the stream.

West Derby loses its prominence to Liverpool

In 1213 a garrison of 140 foot soldiers, ten knights and crossbowmen were posted at the castle. But by 1235 all garrisons had been moved to Liverpool castle. A 1326 document mentions the “site of a ruined castle in West Derby” (Cooper & Power, 1982: 41), and the castle had probably gone out of use entirely by 1297. It had lost its importance at the same time that Liverpool, with its own castle, had risen to prominence. The site was finally levelled in 1817.

Further Reading

Cooper, J.G., & Power, A.D., 1982, A History of West Derby, Causeway Press, Ormskirk

Droop, J P, Larkin, F C, ‘AAA’ in Excavations At West Derby Castle, Liverpool, , Vol. 15, (1928)

Eames, J.V.H., A Short report on the excavations at West Derby Castle, 1957, L’pool Univ School of Arch. (Pag 1-6)

Websites

The Great British Dig: History in your garden, series 2, episode 5, West Derby. Broadcast 26th January 2022 (accessed 27th January 2022) https://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-great-british-dig-history-in-your-garden

West Derby Mill

Mill Lane (Mylngate in documents of 1444 and 1492) is aptly named as the site of the king’s windmill, first mentioned in 1461, along with a horse mill. This stood on the site of the recently built Marks and Spencer building.

The windmill was built on the end of one of the NW-SE ridges that strike across the landscape – a perfect place to catch the breeze! In the early medieval period a survey by Edward IV noted it was in good condition. At the same time, the house associated with the horse mill was ordered to be repaired.

Perry’s map of 1768 shows the mill, and it would have made a useful landmark for any land surveyors of the time. The map of Lord Molyneux’s estate (1769) also shows it. On very early (horse-drawn) cab routes the mill is quoted as a landmark stop on the route. This use continued until at least around 1825, according to directories of the time, though the mill itself had probably already been demolished by 1805.

A tithe barn, 45ft x 30ft, sat on the opposite corner to the windmill, and is now the site of the aptly named Jolly Miller pub. A large house, Barn Field, occupied the site before the pub was built in the 1920s. Another tithe barn stood where Aspes Road meets Finch Lane. This barn served Acker’s Mill.

There would have been other mills in the area, and a field near Meadow Lane was labelled as Milldam Hey on the tithe map.

West Derby Courthouse

The court house was, amongst other things, the place where local copyholders deposited a copy of their freehold lease in a secure chest, and had to renew it once a year. They were bound by the contract to keep their dwelling in good condition. Copyholders were generally “men of substance and employers of labour”.

The stocks which now sit next to the Yeoman’s House once stood at the north end of the court house, before the tram inspector’s hut was built (see below). The pound, the piece of land in which the stocks sit, was planted and arranged for Edward VII’s coronation in 1901.

The courthouse was scheduled for demolition in 1921, but interested locals leased the building from the then lord of the manor, the Marquis of Salisbury, for a nominal sum (2s 6d per annum). In 1933 the Marquis gave his freehold to the City of Liverpool. This early conservation campaign helped keep the historic environment of West Derby in the state that we find it today.

West Derby Chapel

West Derby Chapel was situated in the centre of the village, a space now occupied by a monument. It was first mentioned in the mid-14th Century, and mentioned again in Edward IV’s reign in relation to a repair, deemed important as the chapel was useful for holding the king’s court (and this was before a separate court house was built).

Already by 1650 the chapel was described as ‘ancient’, and documents refer to repairs and additions in 1680, 1719 (for aisles) and 1745-6 (stone pillars to support the steeple, and the repair of the steeple itself). The sundial, which now adorns the wall of St Mary’s Church, was added in 1793 after a complete rebuilding of the chapel the year before.

The chapels was made a parish church in 1844, but St James’ church was built in 1847 and took over the role. Dissatisfaction with St James’ set in early, and £500 was raised for a new church. The Earl of Sefton donated the site off Meadow Lane, and St. Mary’s was built.

The chapel was demolished in 1856, leading to the discovery of building stones which were shaped in a way which would have supported a thatched roof originally. The bell from the chapel was moved to the school in Meadow Lane; some of the wooden doors became part of the new church’s vestry; others were moved to Ivy Cottage in Almonds Green. The font was given to the Church of the Good Shepherd in Toxteth and the sundial spent some time at Moss House before being moved to the wall of St Mary’s, where it remains to this day.

The monument built on the site of the chapel’s altar was designed by Eden Nesfield, who was also the architect behind the cottages (1861-7) in front of St Mary’s church.

Fountain and Lamp Post, West Derby Village

West Derby fountain and St Mary’s church, 2010 (photo by author)

West Derby’s lamp post / drinking fountain is one of those interesting features of the landscape that dozens of people must pass every day, but never take a second glance at.

But this landmarks is really interesting, and points to a certain Victorian view on life at the end of the 19th century.

The fountain was put up in West Derby Village in 1894, a design by Arthur P. Fry, and it was donated to the village by of Richard R. Meade-King of Broomfield in 1894.

Meade-King was a member of the National Liberal Club of London, and the Liverpool Reform Club. Certainly philanthropy was second nature to him.

Perhaps that’s why the fountain has a recess in the base for a dog bowl – neither person nor beast will be left out of consideration of its need!

West Derby village in 2004 (Photo by author)

I’ve also noticed, just from my own photos over the years, that the lamp head itself has been replaced, having been absent in 2004.

There’s also an inscription on the fountain at its widest part which, apart from the details of its origins, reads “Water is best”.

I’ve seen it suggested that this was a deliberate dig at one of the two buildings across the road – the Sefton Arms or the Hare and Hounds. Although the latter is a little further away, it must be this one (if it’s either), as the Sefton Arms wasn’t yet constructed in 1894.

Perhaps the message was for the benefit of those parishioners emerging from St Mary’s Church on a Sunday and wondering whether to head right…

Further reading

The fountain was listed in 1975, and its official listing decription, from where some of the above details comes, is there: https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1068385?section=official-listing

Photograph of the lumberjack statue on top of the former Dominion pub, Liverpool

Lumberjack on the former Dominion pub, Kirkdale

Credit for this goes to Phil Nash, who posted a couple of photos to the Liverpool Hidden History Facebook group.

The former Dominion pub (Or Dominion Hotel) at the junction of Regent Road and Bankfield Street in Kirkdale is now the Bankfield Enterprise Hub. This, its latest role, represents the early years of a new direction for this part of the docks. With the decline in shipping, much of the area became a lot quieter. But now, with the advent of Peel Waters and a potential influx of new residents and businesses, the building that was once the Dominion no doubt hopes to get a new lease of life.

The building has a curious figure stood atop its roof. Often mistaken for a child or a shepherd, this chap is in fact a lumberjack. He gazes across the Dock Road to Canada Dock, and it’s this location that explains his presence.

The Canadian timber trade

Canada Dock opened in 1869, and was Jesse Hartley’s biggest dock project. It dealt in timber, its name a reflection of the predominant source of that material at the time.

Canada Dock was originally relatively isolated from other docks, and was far from the town centre. The northwards expansion of the dock estate was forced by the shape of the river, but its location was also handy in reducing the risk of fire – always a danger with large quantities of wood. Hartley’s Albert Dock was built entirely wood-free for this very reason.

Other timber docks, such as London’s own Canada Dock, handled timber by offloading it into the water, and making rafts of the trunks to move it further inland. Today, Canada Water in Rotherhithe is the remains of Canada Dock, and the nearby Canada Pond and Quebec Pond were for the temporary rafts.

He’s a lumberjack and he’s OK

Liverpool’s Canada Dock was therefore a little unusual in its design, offloading wood directly onto the quay. But next time you’re passing down the Dock Road, look out for the lumberjack, complete with impressive facial hair, trusty hound and plaid shirt. Just don’t call him a hipster. He’s also got an axe.

Further Reading

Images of the lumberjack on the former Dominion pub: http://www.liverpoolmonuments.co.uk/pubs/dominion02.html, retrieved 24th February 2020

The Dominion, The Lost Pubs Project, https://www.closedpubs.co.uk/lancashire/liverpool_l20_dominion.html, retrieved 24th February 2020

Image: Dominion pub detail. https://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1433121 Copyright Sue Adair and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

Photo of the front of Tate Liverpool, an art gallery

“My future” – a grid outside Tate Liverpool

A photo of this grid popped up on Facebook in early 2019. I had no idea what it really was, but was intrigued. It looked like something& from the William Morris school, which I like for both design and political reasons, so I did a little snooping (i.e Googling about a bit).

The metal grid is embedded in the pavement outside Tate Liverpool at the Albert Dock. It is decorated with intertwining vine-like branches, and in the centre is the phrase “My future will reflect a new world”. There’s a spider’s web and a few other things floating round (perhaps berries or pollen grains).

Art at the Dock

The proximity to Tate Liverpool isn’t coincidental. This installation is part of a wider collaboration between artists Moon Kyungwon and Jeon Joonho, under the banner ‘News from Nowhere’ (not to be confused with one of Liverpool’s finest bookshops).

News From Nowhere is the name of a novel by the very same William Morris I mentioned in the first paragraph. In the novel, the Victorian protagonist is mysteriously catapulted into the 21st century, and his conversations with the futuristic inhabitants act as a satire and comment on the inequalities and rampant industrialisation of Morris’s own time (and there lies the connection with the bookshop).

Moon and Jeon’s collaboration arose from conversations between the two artists over art’s role in the world. They were “fed up [with] wasteful art installations and art production”. Part of their News From Nowhere collaboration is a piece of video called El Fin del Mondo (End of the World) which reminds us that the future is no yet written, though we in the present are writing it all the time. Therefore, art can have a very important place in deciding the direction of the world as a whole.

The quote itself is from the female protagonist of the film, and embodies the realisation that her actions have real meaning, and must be chosen wisely.

Grid covers

One of these covers was installed over an existing drain at the entrance to Tate Modern in 2019, while another could be found inside the gallery itself. They stood for the thin cover that we place over the dirty and chaotic parts of our world that must exist to allow civilisation to function. The exhibition also demonstrated links between Liverpool and Jeon’s home city of Busan in South Korea. Both were powerful ports 100 years ago, but suffered decline in the 20th century, followed by a culture and heritage-fronted resurgence at the 21st century got under way.

News From Nowhere ran from 23 November 2018 to 17 March 2019, and I must admit that I’m not sure whether the grid is still out there. However, its place outside the Tate, one of the first elements in the Albert Dock’s regeneration, is highly symbolic, and deserves some attention on this blog.

Sources and further reading

Moon Kyungwon and Jeon Joonho: News from Nowhere, https://ocula.com/magazine/reports/moon-kyungwon-and-jeon-joonho-news-from-nowhere/, retrieved 23rd February 2020

See Liverpool through the eyes of a man who has travelled through space and time to arrive in the city on the eve of the apocalypse, https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/moon-kyungwon-and-jeon-joonho-news-nowhere, retrieved 23rd February 2020

Moon and Jeon on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/moonandjeon/p/

Image: Tate Liverpool, by Smith and Brown Accountants (www.smithbrownaccountants.co.uk), released under a Creative Commons License

Allerton Oak: ancient and award-winning tree

The Allerton Oak is a 1000 year old sessile oak that stands in Calderstones Park. It’s surrounded by a double fence to protect its ancient structure, and metal crutches installed in 1907 hold up its branches.

Calderstones Park is in Allerton, which was mentioned in the Domesday Book and has a long history of its own. A long standing legend about the Allerton Oak is that its spreading branches sheltered the medieval hundred court. It would have been similar to the court held in West Derby (whose courthouse is a remnant of this tradition), and was often held at a significant (not to mention recognisable) landmark. The Allerton Oak fits the bill, although Mike Royden has suggested that the meetings are more likely to have happened nearer to the Calder Stones. Given that a boundary dispute map from 1568 uses the Calder Stones as a boundary marker between Little Woolton, Allerton and Wavertree, the mound wouldn’t be the first prehistoric monument to act as a medieval court location in a place like this.

Allerton Oak legends

The tree’s history continues to inspire legends. When the Lottie Sleigh exploded in the Mersey on 15th Febuary 1864 (11 tonnes of gunpowder were on board) the blast shattered windows and put out gas lamps across Liverpool. Authorities in Chester rang up to ask what all the noise was about. It’s said that all the windows in Calderstones Manor were shattered, and that a massive split appeared in the tree.

The Oak is indeed split down the middle, and largely hollow, but no one can really say that this was caused by the Lottie Sleigh exploding. Nevertheless, this shows how local history stories interweave across centuries. No doubt the story also helped cement the Allerton Oak’s reputation as an indestructable plant.

During the Second World War, leaves, seedlings and acorns from the Oak were sent in cards to soldiers fighting on the front. Staff from the manor house sent the cards, reminding soliders that they were in the thoughts of people back home, and perhaps to let something of that tree’s long life rub off on the men in danger. The upshot of sending these seedlings abroad is that there are probably young descendents of the tree across Europe and maybe further afield.

A long past and a healthy future for the Allerton Oak

The Allerton Oak has stood tall for over 1000 years. The Liverpool Echo ran a story in the 1970s that suggested it would have rotted to death by 2020, but this report seems premature. The tree is 5.5 metres tall and produces 100,000 acorns every year, so it’s future seems assured.

Despite this, a tree this large puts a strain on itself. The 1907 crutches have kept it upright for over 1000 years but they are in need of replacement. There is an £80,000 project to replace these crutches with more modern support, and which can grow and adapt to the changing tree. There is also a sapling (‘Allerton Oak the Younger’) in the park itself, and Calderstones gardeners are busy protecting this next generation.

The Allerton Oak’s fame is spreading around the world, since it has twice won England’s Tree of the Year (2014, 2019) and is set to represent the country in the European Tree of the Year in 2020. Money raised through these competitions, plus other efforts, will go to helping maintain this ancient tree for many centuries to come.

Further Reading

Borough Curios: the Allerton Oak http://liverpooletc.com/borough-curios-the-allerton-oak/

The Calderstones (Mike Royden’s Local History Pages) http://www.roydenhistory.co.uk/mrlhp/articles/mikeroyden/liverpool/calders/calders.htm

Calderstones Park’s ‘1000 year old’ Allerton Oak named England’s Tree of the Year https://www.thereader.org.uk/calderstones-allerton-oak-named-englands-tree-of-the-year-by-woodland-trust/

Liverpool’s Allerton Oak crowned England’s tree of the year https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-merseyside-50141031

Image: Allerton Oak, taken 19th April 2015 by the author

Photograph of a pipe at Hale Duck Decoy

Hale Duck Decoy

The Duck Decoy at Hale is an impressive, complex monument, now a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It lies in the lowest part of the landscape, amongst streams and wetlands and close the the River Mersey itself.

This part of the manor of Hale was drained in the medieval period, with the idea of increasing the amount of land suitable to plough. The trade-off was a reduction in land that wetland wildfowl could use. To counter this, the duck decoy was built.

Hale Decoy was designed to look like the many other coverts that dotted the landscape. The lack of shelter for water birds would make it an attractive spot. A pond was dug in the centre to complete the picture.

The distinctive star shape comes from the five pipes which allowed the game keeper to approach the pond from whichever direction he needed to to keep downwind of the fowl. The pipes were lined with wicker arches, joined together by nets. With the help of his dog, and strategically placed screens, the keeper would scare the birds down the pipes, the netting decreasing in width. At the pipes’ tip, the netting would be small enough to make catching the birds easy.

It’s not certain when Hale Duck Decoy was built, but one clue may lie in a brick near the pond’s boat house. Upon the brick are the moulded figures: X63:RC, which has been interpreted as 1633 (the initials apparently standing for ‘Reign of Charles’. Several decoys were built on the east coast of England in the 17th century, so this date is not unlikely. There are also records of the decoy being repaired in 1754 by Colonel J Blackburne of Hale Hall. The sophistication of this particular decoy do argue for it being a later example.

In 1976 the Cheshire Conservation Trust and the Lancashire Trust for Nature Conservation took over the running of the decoy. This responsibility passed, in 2000, to Halton Borough Council. They managed it as a nature reserve, and in 2001 a group of organisations and individuals met to form the Friends of Pickerings Pasture and Hale Duck Decoy.

Since 2004 the Friends have used a Heritage Lottery grant to improve the visitor experience of Hale Decoy, and make further use of the game keeper’s cottage to help inform visitors about the monument.

Image: Hale Duck Decoy, public domain, via Wikimedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hale_Duck_Decoy#/media/File:Hale-Duck_Decoy_2.jpg, accessed 3rd August 2019

References

Friends of Pickering Pasture, About Hale Duck Decoy, Access and Guided Walks, http://www.thefriendsofpickeringspasture.org.uk/hale-duck-decoy.html, accessed 3rd August 2019

Hale Village Online, Hale Duck Decoy, https://www.halevillageonline.co.uk/hale-duck-decoy, accessed 3rd August 2019

Historic England, Duck decoy pond 200m south east of Marsh Bridge, https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1014717, accessed 3rd August 2019

Photo of St Barnabas Church, Bromborough

Filling in the Gaps: the Neolithic and Bronze Age at Mark Rake, Bromborough

This is part of a series of posts based on the talks given at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference. It was held on the 13th October 2018, and took place at the Museum of Liverpool. Mark Adams of RSK Consulting spoke about his site at Mark Rake in Bromborough.

Mark dug on the site of the former Rectory Gardens, looking for the remains of a lost Anglo-Saxon sculpture. They were first found when the church was last rebuilt, in the mid-19th century. The story goes that builders crushed the remains for sand, possibly on the order of the rectory’s incumbent!

The old rectory gardens, Mark Rake

The excavation at Mark Rake happened in 2016, supported by Big Heritage. Big Heritage had a season of local test pitting as part of ‘Discovering Bromborough‘ back in 2013. Archaeologists found Mesolithic and Neolithic stone flakes, Roman coins and pottery.

The evidence suggested that nothing had been built on the site of Church Croft since at least the 1650s. Perhaps this lack of development would have led to the survival of very old archaeology.

When a new, smaller rectory replaced the old building, builders found fragments of an Anglo-Saxon sculpture. The carvings have since disappeared, so the archaeologists wondered whether they could rediscover them. Their second aim was to look for settlement, from the Anglo-Saxon period or any other.

Looking for a sculpture

The archaeologists dismantled a wall dating from the time of the new rectory, but found no carvings. They then stripped an area for excavation, finding a series of perpendicular ditches. They found a Neolithic arrowhead and Neolithic carinated bowl fragments. These date from 4000 – 3000 BC, and were found in shallow scoops. Mark suspected a cremation, and so took the whole context as a sample. Human bone was indeed recovered from the sample.

Evidence of a settlement suggested a Bronze Age date. There was a ditch or a gully associated with a collared urn (typically Bronze Age).

More gullies dated from AD 650 – 850, encouraging the idea that an Anglo-Saxon sculpture could be on the cards. Environmental analysis discovered barley, rye, wheat and weed evidence.

Finally, on the very last day of the excavation, diggers found a piece of carved stone. Comparison with an old photo of the entire set of sculpture pieces showed that it was part of the collection found in the 19th century. Unfortunately none of the other pieces was found. Mark concluded that the rest had indeed, as the story tells, been ground up for building sand.

Excavating in Bromborough

Despite not finding the majority of the sculpture, Mark had found a few clues that would help future excavations. Although individual finds are interesting, it is the collection which is important. The assemblage of prehistoric finds in proximity to medieval ones is a pattern that Mark has seen elsewhere, and it’ll be interesting to see if, in future, finding medieval features can lead to prehistoric sites.

There are two other sites: All Saints Church, Childwall, and Overchurch in Sefton, which may yield such secrets in the future. They are ancient sites (All Saints has 14th century masonry in its walls) with very little development since their foundation. If the patterns that Mark sees on other Merseyside excavations are taken further, the prehistory of Merseyside is only just beginning to reveal itself.

Image: St Barnabas, Bromborough © Copyright Sue Adair and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.

Map of Pembroke Place, Liverpool

The ‘dark’ heritage of Pembroke Place from documents and archaeology

This is part of a series of posts based on the talks given at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference. It was held on the 13th October 2018, and took place at the Museum of Liverpool. Liz Stewart spoke about Pembroke Place, and the different projects which have been going on there. Galkoff’s Place featured prominently, as did court housing and the area’s ‘darker’ history.

The Pembroke Place project

Liz began her talk with an overview of the project she ran at Pembroke Place. Liverpool’s famous School of Tropical Medicine are landowners in the area, and have been a partner in the project. The centre of the project has been Galkoff’s butcher’s shop and Watkinson Terrace – a court house next door.

In 1835 a map by Gage documented the high density of residents in the area. Before this time the area had been a place of ‘goodly mansions’, but the owners of those had started moving out to the more salubrious outskirts of Liverpool. Their large houses were disappearing, slowly replaced with much smaller dwellings. However, some of these larger villas still stood to the east of Daulby Place when the smaller buildings appeared on the map.

Map of Pembroke Place, Liverpool
First Edition Ordnance Survey map of Pembroke Place, Liverpool, showing the court houses in the centre and the larger villas to the right, bordering on Daulby Street

Liverpool’s population in the 19th century

In the early 19th century 40% of the people of Liverpool lived in cellar dwellings. Even at the time, these conditions were known to be too poor for living, and enquiries were run at the time. In the early 20th century slum clearances finally began.

Pembroke Place once consisted of eight houses on it, around two courtyards. Today, only two of those eight houses remain, as back rooms to the shops fronting the street.

Archaeology at Pembroke Place

The Museum of Liverpool wrote a report on these houses, and collected information about the social context of the street. Social context drew on newspaper articles, which often referenced ‘Little Hell’, the area’s nickname. Anson Street was the centre of Little Hell, which had a reputation for high numbers of murders and brothels. This reputation was no doubt fuelled by the newspaper’s need to sell copies. Liz mentioned that the articles were misleading with their exaggerations.

The archaeologists, including Mark Adams, found structures belonging to the court houses. There was a light well as street level, letting sunlight into the lowest dwellings. There is evidence of the buildings’  alteration and adjustment, including around the light well. The finds were of surprisingly high quality, with bowls, a domino and a ceramic egg dug up. These show that, despite the conditions, people felt it important to surround themselves with ‘non-essentials’.

‘Dark’ heritage

Court housing may be a familiar topic for Liverpudlians. But the evidence from the newspapers, and even the excavations, brought to light disturbing details of life in the courts. Even the census records tell of the living conditions.

There were indeed murders, including those of children, as well as other social ills. Should a museum talk about these? Is there a danger of treating the information like those Victorian newspapers did? Does a museum run the risk of accusations of exploitation?

The Museum of Liverpool conducted a survey, and 100% of people thought that a museum was an appropriate place to talk openly about ‘dark’ and troubling history. However, 90% thought that child murder was something to leave out, even from museums. This is likely related to the family audience museums attract.

The future of Pembroke Place

The court houses, now part of the shops which front on to Pembroke Place, are safe from deterioration for now. (They are listed buildings.) The tiles which fronted Galkoff’s butcher’s have been removed, conserved, and are on display in the Museum of Liverpool for the next five years.

The census reports show that, although court houses, these buildings did not house the poorest people. Residents had steady jobs, for example. But Liz admitted that there’s more work to do to establish anything for certain.

In answer to a question from the audience, Liz told us that there were several Jewish businesses in the area, as well as Galkoff’s, until the 1950s. At that point many of them moved into south Liverpool, around Wavertree and Childwall.

Image: Ordnance Survey of 1850, via https://www.flickr.com/photos/44435674@N00/14538073253

Old drawing of tygs, three handles cups

Rainford Prized Pots

This is part of a series of posts based on the talks given at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference. It was held on the 13th October 2018, and took place at the Museum of Liverpool. This session was slightly different, in that as well as a talk, Jeff Speakman showed attendees pottery excavated from Rainford. People were allowed to handle the pots, and questions were asked in a kind of interactive session.

Rainford Pottery

Rainford, in north east Merseyside, was once a huge pottery and pipemaking centre, only declining in the early 20th century. ‘Faceted tygs‘ are one of the most distinctive types of pot, and the earliest drawing we have is from 1878.

Old drawing of tygs, three handles cups
Tygs, of the kind seen in excavations at Rainford

Sam Rowe and a team of archaeologists have been excavating in Church Road, Rainford, to uncover details about the town’s pottery industry. Their ‘Site 10’ was the first pottery site excavated in north west England (with Melling coming second place).

The Golden Lion pub was itself a site of pipemaking.

Rainford excavations

In 1979 archaeologists excavated a site intended for a new clubhouse and changing rooms on the tennis courts. In 2011 test pitting produced a faceted cup, and in 2013 the Rainford Roots project began. Jeff noted that the test pits for Rainford Roots were incredibly densely packed with pottery sherds. Late 16th century wasters (misfired pots used for packing and protection in kilns) showed that this was definitely an industrial scale of pot making.

Infra red photographs showed field boundaries in the area, but the location of kilns was still uncertain. Three quarters of a tonne of pottery was excavated from the tennis court extension site, close to the earlier digs in the 1970s. Some pots were complete, and in the best condition Jeff has seen across the many sites he’s excavated over years.

Unique pottery from Rainford

Some unusual pieces came from Rainford. Sgraffito is a type of hand carved design where a design is scratched into the top one of two layers of glaze, giving a contrasting colour. A potentially controversial sgraffito item was found (see below). Tygs are three- (or more!) handled jugs made at a couple of sites in north west England (plus a single waster from Stoke). Rainford has a distinctive design which the archaeologists asked a modern potter to reproduce. The rather heavy version that came back was proof, as the potter admitted, that small hands (or a long tool) were needed to craft the fine bodied vessels found at Rainford. This could mean they were made by women or children.

Another unique feature are the handles. Even when the design of the pot itself is seen from other locations, the handles have a ‘twisted’ design, asymmetrical, which is unique to Rainford. This unusual type is found on pots of many different designs.

Other Rainford pottery types

As well as these highlights, the Rainford Roots team found other interesting pieces. There were one-off pieces found nowhere else, there were chafing dishes, salting pans, a possible alembic tray, hollow handles, decorated sherds, and some things that look like ‘melted’ pots. Some sherds have seed impressions on them, which probably came from seeds which were scattered on the floor of the space set aside for drying.

One interesting piece was one that Jeff saw as potentially idolatrous: it had a rough ‘face’ in the centre, which could be the face of Jesus (see second image in gallery on Liverpool Museum’s blog post). This would have been problematic in an era when the Protestant Reformation had blacklisted images of Jesus.

It’s hoped that makers marks will let archaeologists discover the identity of the potters. Clay pipes often have decoration on them, including makers marks but also other designs that still allow identification of their origin.

Community Archaeology in Merseyside – sieving through our past

This is part of a series of posts based on the talks given at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference. It was held on the 13th October 2018, and took place at the Museum of Liverpool. This talk was given by Vanessa Oakden, now Curator of Regional & Community Archaeology at the Museum of Liverpool, and formerly the Finds Liaison Officer for Liverpool, for the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

This talk is centred on two community archaeology projects that Vanessa has been involved in: St Nicholas’ Church on the waterfront, and Lister Steps in Tue Brook. The projects aimed to teach volunteers some building recording skills, and preserve the buildings in question. The projects would put the buildings in their landscape context as well, and highlight some of the changes to the structures over time.

St Nicholas’s Church

There once was a small chapel on the banks of the Mersey, known as St Mary del Key (Quay), first mentioned in 1257. This was not a full parish church, but a chapel of ease within the parish of Walton-on-the-Hill. St Nicholas’s Church was built close by in 1355, taking over the role of St Mary’s. It was constructed over the course of a century, finally consecrated in 1361 when plague erupted in the city.

The church has been rebuilt several times, for example in 1952 after it had suffered heavy damage in the Blitz. Lots of older material is therefore still in situ, and the project rediscovered some of this. The fascinating thing about these remains is that they are not all aligned with the current building. They may be earlier, and unrelated to the building of the church itself.

Vanessa showed the Peters Painting which depicts the city in the 1680s. She said that the painting suggests these older walls may be part of warehouses just inland of the church (as it then stood). They could be Late Medieval, or even earlier.

Other parts of the section that the community archaeology group excavated showed the 19th century re-use of rubble from older versions of St Nick’s.

Lister Steps

The old Lister Drive Library was one of the so-called ‘Carnegie libraries‘, the only one in Liverpool, and designed by Thomas Shelmerdine. It closed in 2006 because of the poor state of the building, thus putting it at even greater risk. It’s a Grade II listed building, and following a successful Heritage Lottery Fund bid a project started to bring it back into community use.

Vanessa’s community archaeology project chose a small patch of the building’s outside, and looked at the graffiti there. This was a chance to practice archaeological drawing: teasing apart the layers of paint is much like excavation!

The group chose Heritage Open Day to ask local people to volunteer. It was a great success, and there are hopes to repeat it. Also, in the future Vanessa hopes to run an excavation in the grounds of the library. This will be backed up by social research – talking to locals about their knowledge of the building and the area.

Britannia Inferior?

Vanessa also gave a preview of work being done behind the scenes by Luke Daly-Groves. Luke is in the middle of a PhD in American history, but needed something unrelated to gain wider experience. He chose Roman archaeology, which Luke admits is not all that common in this part of the UK! He’ll be putting together an exhibition using finds from the Ochre Brook excavation of 2000.

A Roman tilery was discovered, stamped by one Aulus Viducus. A patera (a shallow bowl) which had been uncovered in Cheshire had been donated to the museum too.

Now that Luke has finalised the collection, it will appear as Britannia Inferior? A Glimpse of Life Around Roman Merseyside on the first floor of the Museum of Liverpool during November 2018.

Image: St Nicholas’s Church, Liverpool, by the author, released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Artillery being fired at Fort Crosby, 1 August 1940, with soldiers standing by

Fort Crosby: protecting the Mersey coast

The following post about Fort Crosby is based on a talk Alison Burns gave at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference, held in the Museum of Liverpool on 13th October 2018. Alison has also written about the Formby footprints (see the previous link for details).

New research is shedding light on a piece of Mersey defence which has a long history. Alison Burns has produced a booklet about Fort Crosby, with further detail coming from a desk-based assessment (a kind of investigation that uses documents, maps and other archival resources as opposed to excavation) by Mark Adams.

Defence of Mersey and country

The River Mersey has always been important for Britain’s defences. King John founded Liverpool itself partly because of his ambitions over in Ireland, the Mersey crossing at Hale Ford was important in the Civil War, and we all know about Western Approaches. But many installations have been built in the intervening period. Perch Rock, for example, built off the coast of New Brighton in 1826, defended the mouth of the Mersey and the Port of Liverpool. Its eighteen guns looked towards the Irish Sea in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.

But in 1882 the whole of Britain’s coastal defences were reviewed by one Lord Morley. Morley found that the defence of Britain’s coasts was inadequate, and amongst other things recommended five batteries in the Mersey. These forts were to be at Liscard, North Shore, Seaforth, Crosby, plus the existing Perch Rock.

Fort Crosby

Photograph of ATS women and soliders at Fort Crosby, Liverpool
ATS girls and gun crews of 177 Heavy Battery Royal Artillery rush to ‘take post’ at Fort Crosby near Liverpool, England (public domain)

It took an incredibly long time to build Fort Crosby: starting in March 1906, work was only completed in October 1907.

From 1914 new troops used Crosby as a muster point, and they lived in the barracks at Sniggery. The fort itself had a surveillance role, as part of the Royal Observer Corps, as well as anti-shipping guns. In all it was a well-developed site, including practice trenches (visible in aerial photographs for years after) in preparation for the First World War.

Dragons’ teeth (anti-tank concrete pyramids) littered the foreshore, and barbed wire protected Formby. There was a starfish decoy (a mound of burning debris used to distract and blind bomber pilots) close by too. Starfish decoys were a slight concern, what with being built from large amounts of burning material so close to artillery and ammunition!

The Fort worked hand in hand with Maunsell Forts, stilted buildings out at sea giving another line of defence. There were three of these in the River Mersey.

After the Second World War

Muansell Towers from above.
Bromborough Dock, 8 December 1953, during the construction of 120ft Maunsell anti-aircraft forts for use in the Mersey estuary

Fort Crosby acted as a prisoner of war camp (Camp 678), holding German and Italian prisoners from 1945 to 1950. They worked on farms and on renovations in the nearby communities. Bert Trautmann, a goalkeeper for Manchester City, became a local legend because of his time here. (One of Trautmann’s achievements was to break his neck during a game but to continue playing!) The prisoners also made toys for local children.

The Maunsell Towers were no longer of use after the war, and were demolished. Territorial Army personnel used the anti-shipping guns of Fort Crosby to destroy them. Lack of gun training meant this took a long time. Only one in ten shots hit their mark! (Incidentally, there is no record of the anti-shipping guns being used against the enemy at any time.)

Reclamation by nature

The area around the fort was not cleared immediately after it fell into disuse. Closure came in 1958, but full demolition and landscaping had to wait until 1968. During this time the buildings had been vandalised, and occasional finds surfaced, like parts of uniforms or rifles.

Eventually, the sand dunes and grasses reclaimed the land; today, only the footing for the guns, plus a sewage pipe and a trig point are visible. Today, rubble from city centre Blitz site clearances protects the coast from erosion, although the area will always be changing.

Image: A 4-inch gun of 177 Heavy Battery, Royal Artillery, being fired at Fort Crosby near Liverpool, 1 August 1940.
A 4 inch gun of 177 Heavy Battery, Royal Artillery, being fired at Fort Crosby near Liverpool, England, 1 August 1940. This training operation formed part of British preparations to repel the threatened German invasion of 1940. Public domain via Wikimedia Commons

Photograph of Lunt Meadows nature reserve, Sefton, Lancashire

Lunt Meadows – update on the Mesolithic site

This is part of a series of posts based on the talks given at the Recent Developments in Merseyside Archaeology conference. It was held on the 13th October 2018, and took place at the Museum of Liverpool. It’s based on a talk given by Ron Cowell, who has excavated at Lunt Meadows for a few years now.

The project started in 2012, because the Environment Agency (EA) were working in this area between Maghull and Crosby to restore the reed beds. and ponds for conservation reasons.

The excavations looked at 12,000 year-old deposits around the River Alt, but showed the potential for other sites to be found in the area in the future. Marine clay sits on top of freshwater clay (showing a change in the environment over time), which in turn sits on top of the Mesolithic occupation layer. During the time people inhabited this area, the ground was initially drier than it would be later on.

The lack of drainage on this wet site has led to good preservation of artefacts and structural evidence. The archaeology is also deep enough that it’s not been damaged by ploughing.

Discoveries

The team found a floor surface surrounded by a ring of postholes. The small size of the holes suggests the poles (and hence the walls) were short, with any roof coming close to the ground. Stone tools were found too. These would have been used for building the shelter, gathering food, and making clothes. These people would not have farmed. The tools date different elements of the site to between 9,500 to 6,000 years ago, with repeat visits and re-use over this time.

The tools were made of flint from the local area, and chert. It became apparent that the chert was not from nearby. Another site excavated in the region, Greasby, brought up chert tools made of stone from North Wales, but this was different. Its appearance is more like that of chert from the Clitheroe area.

Hut circles in the landscape

It looks from the plans as if there are two hut circles, each with two ditches. Despite their closeness to each other, they might be as much as 200 years apart (9,300 and 9,100 years ago respectively), and were occupied by groups doing all kinds of different things. Their activities would have depended on the season, and the size of the groups would vary. Perhaps the different groups were related, a series of generations visiting the same site year after year (or decade after decade).

The area around the huts, now wetlands, would have been oak and hazel forest. Ron noted that the position of the trees was as much a part of the site as the placing of the huts. The Alt itself would have been further away from the site 9,000 years ago, although closer 7.500 years ago. It seems that no archaeology has been found from this period over 4m above sea level. This was the flood plain, and Mesolithic communities were intentionally building on the flood plain, and nowhere else.

Drawing of excavated features at Lunt Meadow
Plan of the main features of Lunt Meadows – the hut circles (adapted from http://www.clhg.org.uk/index.php/blog-reports/29-2017-10-12-lunt-meadows)

One of the most interesting sets of finds represented what Ron called ‘formal symbolic acts’. Melon-sized granite boulders – the granite having sparkling mica pieces in – were deliberately placed in the ground. These large stones were stained red by sitting in iron rich soils, and this may have contributed to their importance to the Mesolithic people here. Next to these boulders – there were two similar ones on the site – were struck blue flints and a smaller pebble. There were two of these flint-pebble pairs at each granite boulder, placed on opposite sides of the central stone. What these arrangements might have ‘meant’ is unknown, but it shows that life was more than mere utilitarian survival. Time was spent on activities whose meaning we can’t intuit.

Later history of Lunt Meadows

The later phases of the site have been dated to 7,900 years ago. At this time a tree was deliberately set alight on the site. It’s trunk now lies on its side in the excavated area, and a white flint blade placed deliberately beneath it. The significance of the tree burning has been lost to us.

By around 7,500 years ago the oak and hazel forest was dying back due to a rising sea level and water table. The area became a fen and swamp, before settling into a reed swamp about 7,500 years ago. It’s this reed swamp landscape that the Environment Agency are restoring. Essentially, Lunt Meadows is once again a prehistoric wetland landscape!

Future of the project

Ron Cowell continues to excavate at Lunt Meadows, and in fact the archaeological site is now part of the nature reserve. The Environment Agency have agreed to incorporate the archaeology into their project, reflecting on and demonstrating how humans and nature can co-exist in a way that leaves both richer for it. It’s an active site with Key Stage 2 school children visiting regularly. The Stone Age is part of KS2 these days, so Lunt Meadows provides a great resource. The Young Archaeologist Club have also visited, and built a ‘Mesolithic’ hut with reeds that they had themselves cut.

A case is ready in the Museum of Liverpool to house objects from the excavation, and at the time of writing this should be ready for visitors at the end of October 2018.

An app (for phones and tablets) has been developed by a company called Inspyro, which takes advantage of new Augmented Reality (AR) technology. With the app installed, a person can explore the Lunt Meadows landscape by overlaying it on the scene in front of them (as seen through the camera on the device). This works best at the site itself, to recreate the Mesolithic landscape and walk among it. But the app also works on smaller scales – you can project a miniature Mesolithic world onto your tabletop! This app is still in production, and so the version you can install today will be getting updates and become more advanced as time goes on. You can already listen to Ron narrating the introduction, and look through a couple of different scenes.

More information

Lunt Meadows Mesolithic Settlement, Merseyside: A Site for Sore Eyes, Day of Archaeology, retrieved 22nd October 2018

Conjuring lost lives from the sands of Lunt Meadows, That’s How the Light Gets In, retrieved 22nd October 2018

Photograph of Hale Lighthouse, where Hale Ford once crossed the Mersey

Hale Ford

Hale township occupies a spot at the widest part of the River Mersey. Because of this the water slows down significantly. So much so that, at times in the past, a sandbank could once be seen to poke above the level of the water. This, the so-called Hale Ford, was an important crossing point of the river, and was used for hundreds of years.

The crossing went from the end of Within Way due east towards Weston Point. We have records of one John, son of Peter Walley (or Wolley) of Runcorn who attempted the crossing in 1423. He was on horseback, and drove two more horses laden with fish from Formby. The two horses made it across the river, but John fell from his steed and was drowned.

The next day: “at the return tide the horse was found, as Dower of the Sea, and had upon him a good saddle, and four irons on his feet.”

‘Dower of the Sea’ was a term for one of the lord of the manor’s rights, whereby he could charge fines on anything which ran aground on his lands, or washed up. It’s interesting, and a little disturbing to read the emotionless description of the mere monetary value of the horse upon which John Walley died.

Hale Ford during the Civil War and beyond

During the Civil War Hale Ford was an important route from east to west. Prince Rupert crossed the Ford in 1643, with prisoners from his conquest of Bolton. Lord Molyneux fled across the Ford to Cheshire when ousted from his parish at Kirkham. The following year Rupert tried to cross again, but attacked government forced attacked him. Later in the same year he successfully crossed on his way from York to Chester.

Outside of war time, horses were taken across the Ford in the hunting season. Rev. Thomas Blackburne used it when he left Hale to live in Wrexham.

The ford was a dangerous route, however, never being completely dry. A ferry plied the same route, with part of the profits going to the lord of the manor. The two year absence of this ferry (for want of a boat!) led to losses of 20 shillings per annum that would otherwise have gone to the treasury.

Embanking the Mersey at Hale Point

The Mersey had always been dangerous at this point, and so at one time it was proposed to create an embankment along the shore. In 1817 Gregson mentions this project, which would stretch from Ditton near Hale to Garston or even Knott’s Hole at the Dingle:

Opposite the Dungeon two miles of land in breadth might be enclosed before the present salt works, where the river is fordable at low water.

Nothing came of this however, not least because previous attempts were washed away by the dangerous channel’s waters.

The end of Hale Ford

Use of Hale Ford lessened as the 19th century progressed, partly due to the opening of the Widnes Transporter Bridge. The Ford was becoming increasingly dangerous anyway, and less reliable. Once constructed on the Cheshire side, the Manchester Ship Canal made it impossible to cross the Mersey on foot.

Image: Lighthouse at Hale point cc-by-sa/2.0 – © Sue Adairgeograph.org.uk/p/40618

Photograph of Hale Lighthouse, likely taken in the early 20th century

Hale Lighthouse

The River Mersey at Hale Point can be dangerous, as the Hale Ford demonstrates. Conditions change with each tide, and formerly dry land can become swift and deep channels. The opposite is also true: hidden sandbanks can put paid to river trips heading to the manufacturing towns inland or the globally connected docks at Liverpool. Hale lighthouse goes some way to reducing the dangers.

A lighthouse was built on the southernmost reaches of Hale township in 1906. This lighthouse, which still stands today, replaced a shorter tower erected in 1838.

The Ireland-Blackburne family’s private bathing house already stood at Hale Point. So the building of the lighthouse saw the conversion of this bathing house for the original lighthouse keeper’s cottage.

Hale lighthouse decommissioned

The decommissioning of Hale lighthouse, which is 45 feet tall, came in 1958. Fewer ships were travelling the Mersey as trade declined. Those ships that did head for inner Lancashire used the Manchester Ship Canal on the opposite bank. Today, buoys mark the channel for (mostly pleasure) boats to find safe passage. The demolition of the keeper’s cottage made way for a modern private bungalow.

Engraving of Hale Hall by Neal, 1824

Hale Hall

Hale Hall was a quadrangular building, begun in the early 17th century, built of local stone with a red shale driveway. It was altered near the end of the century, and in 1806 John Blackburn added a large south front. This now matched and balanced the existing north front. John also added a lodge to the hall in 1876.

The Hall had a home farm, and kitchen gardens with walls of 3.5 – 4.5 metres height. The walls were built of hollow bricks to allow warm air from underground furnaces to spread through them. The warm walls were therefore a great home for soft fruits like nectarines that wouldn’t otherwise thrive. Later on, glasshouses widened the selection, as did an ice house.

The family at Hale Hall eventually, through marriage, became the Ireland-Blackburnes. A small museum within the house held, amongst other things, a coin collection as well as stuffed birds (the latter collected by Anne Blackburne).

Hale Hall, in a Victorian photograph
Hale Hall, south Lancashire, in a photograph from the early 20th century

In the 1930s Robert Ireland-Blackburne and his son Gilbert left Hale Hall and moved to Cheshire. The Fleetwood-Hesketh family of Meols bought the estate in 1947. They found the Hall to be in too poor a state for them to live in, so they moved into Parsonage House. After refurbishment and extensions, Parsonage House became known as the Manor House.

When the estate changed hands the new owners demolished the old north front of Hale Hall. Parts of Hale Park became farmland. At some point a fire destroyed the south front too, and Hale Hall fell into a ruinous state. It survived as little more than a playground for children until 1981, when it was finally demolished. (Thanks to Lyn McCulloch for this information.) Some stonework is still visible, even today. Stone window sills, stone lamp posts, pillars and even some of the original trees are still there amongst the woodlands.

Hale Manor House

The building now known as Hale Manor House started life as Parsonage House. As a parsonage, the house sits just across the road from St. Mary’s Church. It is a much smaller building than Hale Hall, but nevertheless the Fleetwood-Heskeths moved in here in 1947 because of the poor state of the Hall they would otherwise occupy.

Photograph of the Manor House, Hale
Hale Manor House, from a 19th century post card

The Rev. William Langford added the impressive west face to the house in the 18th century. His coat of arms and monogram sit carved in stone over the entrance. Later on, alterations to this part of the building reduced the storeys from three to two, so increasing the ceiling height of the rooms.

The impressive façade hides two gable ends. The south gable is smaller and older (17th century) while the north is larger and later. The back portion of the south gable still has three storeys, while the front portion, and the whole of the north gable, have two.

Allerton Hall

Perhaps the most significant of the merchant houses in the history of Allerton is Allerton Hall itself. The wealthy Lathom family built the first house on the site back in the reign of James I. They held the lands of the estate from the 15th to the 17th century, but had them taken from them when they joined the ‘wrong’ side in the Civil War.

After the Lathoms, Richard Percival bought Allerton. He owned it from 1670 until 1736, when a James Hardman, Rochdale merchant, purchased the land.

The earliest parts of the current building were built by Hardman when he moved in. They were built of sandstone, and are considered to be the earliest examples of Palladianism in Liverpool. This innovation contributed to the decision to list Allerton Hall.

William Roscoe in Allerton Hall

When John died in 1754, his brother James moved in. James’s wife Jane outlived him, and stayed in the hall until her own death in 1799. She had been friends with the famous abolitionist William Roscoe, who now bought the house and moved in.

Roscoe demolished the remaining 17th century parts of the building (which are understood to have been dangerously under-maintained), and added new rooms to balance the design.

Bankruptcy forced Roscoe to sell his share of the house, and this was bought by one of his political allies, Pattison Ellames.

Cotton and the American Civil War

In the 1860s Richard Wright rented Allerton Hall. Wright was a cotton merchant and ship owner with family ties to the Fraser, Trenholm & Co merchant company. Fraser, Trenholm were based in South Carolina and funded the Southern states in their war effort against the north. Many in Liverpool had sided with the South because of the merchants’ links with cotton trading, and Richard Wright was one of those. In July 1861 the Confederate flag was flown above Allerton Hall.

The Hall is given to the city

Later in its history, Allerton Hall was owned by Lawrence Richardson Baily, and then Thomas Clarke. Clarke’s widow eventually donated the house and land to the city of Liverpool in 1926, and this forms Clarke Gardens today. (See also: Clarke Gardens Pillbox.)

The Hall was used as the regional headquarters of the National Fire Service during the Second World War. A blockhouse in the grounds of the house is testament to this use.

Today, the Hall is listed as a Grade II* building, with the gate piers, walls and railings on Woolton Road listed in their own right. After damaging fires in 1994 and 1995, the house was renovated. It’s now the Pub in the Park, and the former hothouse is used by the pub for its dining room.

Illustration from the 1938 discovery of a possible Viking boat at Meols

Viking boat at Meols

In 2007, Professor Stephen Harding and a team of archaeologists from the University of Nottingham brought attention to a possible Viking boat buried under the car park at the Railway Inn, Meols.

In 1938, workmen laying the car park first spotted the remains. But with the risk that an archaeological dig would delay building work, the find was kept secret. One of the workers, however, made a few notes, and in 1991 his son produced a report and a sketch. The report was brought to the attention of the current landlord, and so the Nottingham team was brought in, conducting a Ground Penetrating Radar survey of the location.

Viking boat survey

The survey seemed to show a ‘boat-shaped anomaly’ in the underlying clay. Further survey will assess the potential for an evaluation excavation.

The Viking boat find is particularly interesting from a landscape point of view. The pub is over a kilometre from the coast, and even further from the medieval shore. Professor Harding suggests that a flood may have washed the boat inland. Another possibility is that it sunk in one of the many marshes which covered the area at the time.

Old Norse field and track names are all over the area. It wasn’t unknown for the people of the time to drag their ships substantial distances inland if necessary.

Further reading

Current Archaeology, Issue 213: p4-5.

Wirral & West Lancashire Viking Research Page

Norse by North West – Liverpool Echo article on DNA analysis done in Liverpool by Professor Harding

Viking Mersey, by Stephen Harding, is available from Amazon UK (although the rarity of this book nowadays has made the price shoot up!)

Image: notes taken in 1938 by one of the workmen who discovered the boat.

Photograph of an Albright and Wilson Self-Igniting Phosphorous grenade

World War II Grenades found in Kirkby

In 2009, workmen discovered twenty Second World War grenades in Ruffwood Drive, Kirkby, while digging foundations. Police carried out controlled explosions on the grenades.

The AW Bombs (manufactured by Albright and Wilson) were too unstable to move, and were originally designed to explode on impact.

Later in the week, another two A.W. grenades were found in the grounds of the same school.

Grenade manufacturing in Kirkby

Liverpool’s historic landscape influenced even this bit of history. The grenades were probably made at the Royal Ordnance Factory (ROF) in Kirkby, on the site which later became the Kirkby Industrial Estate.

A similar factory was sited in Speke, as well as other locations around the country.

In the 1930s and 40s the outskirts of Liverpool were popular for this kind of development. The flat landscape provided room for expansion, and the population was increasing rapidly. Following slum clearances in the city centre, men and women had moved to the outskirts. They formed the workforce needed by the factories.

The government of the time judged these areas to be relatively ‘safe’. A huge area of the country , from Bristol to Linlithgow in Scotland, was a fitting place for these factories.

The areas were a good distance from centres of population, but had good road and rail links. Because of this it was easy to take the finished products to where they were needed.

Image: Grenade, Hand or Projector, Drill, No 76 (S.I.P.) (& AW Bomb) (MUN 3306) The ‘live’ version of this grenade, known as the ‘Grenade, Hand or Projector, No. 76, S.I.P. Mk I’, consisted of a short-necked half-pint capacity glass bottle filled with an incendiary mixture and closed with a crown cap. The filling itself was made of yellow phosphorous (128cc), water (21cc), benzine (110cc) and a 3.5in piece of crude rubber, which partially dissolved during storage to give the … Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/30021485

Ridge and Furrow, Medieval farming remains in West Derby

Ridge and Furrow formations are possibly one of the best-known archaeological features which survive into the modern day. You can see these long, sinuous raises beds of earth across Britain. They survive particularly well in Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire and Derbyshire, as well as in other counties.

The remains of this farming technique are visible in two fields in West Derby, both on Eaton Road. The Walker Playing Fields near Kiln Hey are one location, while the Bill Shankly Playing fields on the corner with Barnfield Drive is the other.

They are best viewed in low sunlight, or after a light snowfall. Occasionally a lone golfer tees off from their slopes of a late summer evening!

Ridge and furrow in Liverpool

Ridge and furrow is a form of ploughing that first appears in Britain shortly after the Romans left, and lasted well into the 17th century.

In those times, groups of animals (oxen or, later, horses) pulled a single-sided plough which turned the soil over to one side. This side never altered, which is why the ridge of soil was able to build up.

"Medieval Ridge and Furrow above Wood Stanway - geograph.org.uk - 640050" by Philip Halling. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Medieval_Ridge_and_Furrow_above_Wood_Stanway_-_geograph.org.uk_-_640050.jpg#/media/File:Medieval_Ridge_and_Furrow_above_Wood_Stanway_-_geograph.org.uk_-_640050.jpg Low sunlight shows off this great examples of well-preserved ridge and furrow above Wood Stanway, Gloucestershire

At the same time, the furrows were useful drainage channels. Crops like wheat were kept high and dry where they would otherwise have drowned. Rainwater would then have flowed down the furrows to a ditch at the bottom of the slope; ridge and furrow always ran up and down slope rather than across.

The ridges were an elongated reverse-S shape – largely straight with slight curves where the plough and animals turned. This helped the team to line up with the next furrow.

Each of the ridges which grew up became known as a land. Lands were a measure of area and value, such as when calculating the work a ploughman had done.

Survival of ridge and furrow

Ridge and furrow lines could be built up to 6 feet in height in some places, and so they take a lot of punishment before they’re wiped from the landscape. Modern ploughing will quickly reduce the ridges to nothing. Where no ploughing has taken place since their formation, ridges can survive up to 2 or 3 feet (almost 1 metre).

The two fields we’re looking at here have remains around a foot tall in some cases. However, the ridge and furrow lies at the edges, as the fields are used for football. The sports fields themselves have been levelled.

What this tells us about West Derby

The moderate survival of this ridge and furrow in West Derby can be taken to mean many things.

Either this land went totally out of use once the open field system was no longer in operation. Or perhaps cattle or sheep were grazed here instead. Ridge and furrow survive fairly well when grazed instead of used for crops.

It’s also a fact that parts of south Lancashire were fairly waterlogged in their natural state. The land may simply have been unsuitable for crop growing.

Perhaps the local population fell to the extent that the number of fields needed for crops went down.

Main image: Ridge and furrow remains on the Walker Playing Fields, Eaton Road, West Derby.

Ridge and furrow photograph: Medieval Ridge and Furrow above Wood Stanway – geograph.org.uk – 640050” by Philip Halling. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Commons.

Yeoman’s House, West Derby Village

The ‘Yeoman’s House’ (as it is known locally) dates from the 1580s, so is a cherished historical feature in the village of West Derby. Others include the similarly-aged courthouse across the road.

The stocks to one side, and the beautiful red brick cottages around the entrance to Croxteth Park add to the historic landscape. That’s not to mention the other monuments dotted around the area too, and the great history of West Derby in general.

Yeoman’s House photo gallery

The building was put up for sale in 2017, so new photos were taken by estate agents. The photos below are all from the estate agents who put the property on the market:

 

Further Reading

Liverpool’s 400-year-old courthouse where you could be put in the stocks for not having a pig-ring – Liverpool Echo (accessed 18th Nov 2017)

Paton Street Aerial cropped

Paton Street, Kirkdale, in aerial photos and maps

A question came in back in October 2016, looking for information on Paton Street in Kirkdale. I couldn’t find out any information on this myself, as there were few clues. However, Phil D came to the rescue recently with some aerial photos (truly a rarity!) and some maps to locate ourselves with. Go to the comment to see the original question, but the images that Phil sent me all here.

Paton Street was demolished in 1969. The in-laws of Pauline Evans, who lived there, had to move out when the demolition happened.

The photos show the classic grid of small Victorian streets, and the Hangsman pub (handily marked!). This building is still there, as the Brasenose Road Cafe. However, the housing has all disappeared, replaced with industrial units.

Click on each one for a larger view.